Stability and UQAM Publish HSG Project Articles

Stability and UQAM have recently published research articles produced by ASSN’s Hybrid Security Governance in Africa (HSG) Project. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supported the HSG project.

In its Special Collection: New Approaches to SSR in Africa, Stability published five articles focusing on issues of Hybridity in Security Governance in Liberia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and Nigeria. 

On the other hand, two articles on the Ivorian case study under the same project have also been published by UQAM in French.

The project’s conceptual paper was earlier published by the Conflict, Security and Development Journal, King’s College: Titled Hybrid security governance in Africa: rethinking the foundations of security, justice and legitimate public authority the paper was co-authored by Dr Niagale Bagayoko and Profs Robin Luckham and Eboe Hutchful.

Similarly, an interview with the authors of the conceptual paper has recently been published in French in Afrique Contemporaine:

https://www.cairn.info/revue-afrique-contemporaine-2016-4-p-93.htm

Please find below links to the HSG publications:

“Secret Societies and Women’s Access to Justice in Sierra Leone: Bridging the Formal and Informal Divide” on 26 June, 2018 by Fredline M’Cormack-Hale 

In Sierra Leone, customary systems of governance have long been recognized as feasible alternatives to justice provision, particularly as formal institutions have yet to adequately address the barriers women face in accessing justice. However, the focus has often been on the chieftaincy, an institution largely dominated by men. In this paper, Women’s Secret Societies are explored under the premise that such institutions might be better at providing access to justice for women. The paper shows that customary institutions, including Women’s Secret Societies, by embracing cultural norms and values that undermine women, cannot necessarily serve as a better alternative for women to access justice. While these societies can be important sources of power, they are constrained in terms of what they do for women given their continued association with cultural practices like female genital mutilation and the shifting norms regarding the importance of their role in Sierra Leone society. Additionally, competition between formal and informal sources of power, particularly in the domain of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), provides some limitations regarding what they can do in this arena. At the same time, given that culture is not static, the paper explores the possibility of engaging with these organizations in ways that could help complement the justice services available to women.

Please click here to access the article.

“Securing Pride: Sexuality, Security and the Post-Apartheid State” on June 6, 2018, by Xavier Livermon

The article explores the contestation that emerges between state security providers and communities in hybrid security situations.

Rather than focusing on the failures of the state, it explores how communities use contested insecurities to create forms of security for themselves. The article argues for Soweto Pride as an example of vernacular security for black LGBT+ populations in Johannesburg. Ultimately, what is envisioned is an expansive concept of security that considers cultural practices, space making, and communal formations as central to its formation.

Please click here to access the article.

“Policing Actors, Plural Processes and Hybridisation: Histories of Everyday Policing Practice in Central Nigeria” on 08 May 2018 by Jimam Lar.

 The focus of this paper is to account for plural and hybrid dynamics of everyday policing practice in selected areas of central Nigeria. I argue that it is the plurality of actors and the plurality of practice that constitute the hybrid context of security provisioning. It then follows that the conceptualisation of policing as I have used it and argued from the historical study but also the current state of affairs is a mode of statecraft, a means of governing, situated within a plural landscape, that is shaped by political, economic and social interest. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how plural policing is a product of forms of policing socialisation. The main point that emerges, therefore, is that violent practices of policing actors are adopted and imbibed not just from a history of the formation and development of state security institutions, but also influenced by wider Nigerian political and social history. State power in the socio-political context I have studied has always been accompanied or preceded by violence. Routinised violence, therefore, relates to forms and practices of legitimated violence inherent in policing authorities. Furthermore, the paper argues that alongside these particularly violent forms of policing are the everyday civic policing services, that policing actors render. Policing practice entails normal everyday civic responsible policing and violent everyday practice – all are constitutive of policing practice. In sum, and in conclusion the paper explores how policing practices impact on citizens, particularly as it relates to the processes of policing, the plurality of actors, and the accountability of policing actors.

Please click here to access the article.

 Prospects for Accessing Justice for Sexual Violence in Liberia’s Hybrid System” on 01 May 2017 by Freida M’Cormack

This paper explores the prospects of complementary rather than competitive dispute resolution and justice systems in Liberia. It specifically considers women’s access to justice in relation to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), which remains prevalent in the post-conflict period, and in the context of a highly hybridised justice system. While the formal system has made great progress in reforming laws and institutions but is vastly under-resourced. Informal and traditional systems are widely considered more accessible and affordable. They are, however, also susceptible to corruption and co-option, and the state’s oversight and curtailing of specific conflict resolution and punishment practices are considered to have rendered these systems less effective. Significantly, some cultural and traditional practices are themselves considered to facilitate and promote SGBV. These factors make complementary systems an imperative while working to address the deficiencies of both systems.

Please click here to access the article.

“Hybrid Security Governance Responses to Crises: The Case of the Ebola Response in Sierra Leone” on 27th April, 2018 by Osman Gbla

This paper examines how hybrid security structures, enabled by international support, responded to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. The main objective of this article is to critically discuss the manifestation of hybrid security governance in practice, to consider the constraints and analyze the sustainability of internationally supported security governance interventions in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Specifically, the diverse networks and processes of the formal and informal security, policing and justice institutions are analyzed to generate an understanding of how their interwoven nature affects operational responses to national crises. Using secondary resources, the argument presented here finds that despite international intervention efforts, the hybrid security structures response to the Ebola outbreak show-cased the challenges of operationalizing hybridity due in part to international post-conflict reconstruction efforts prioritizing formal structures with too little support given to informal structures in the years before the Ebola crisis.

Please click here to access the article.

Informalité et hybridité des forces de défense de Côte d’Ivoire, par Moussa Fofana

Au sortir d’une longue période d’instabilité sociopolitique et militaire entamée dans le courant des années 1990, dont le dénouement s’est soldé par la crise post-électorale particulièrement violente de 2010-11, la Côte d’Ivoire tente de relever le défi d’une énième reconstruction de son armée conformément aux recommandations des experts de la RSS. Les forces de défense ivoiriennes sont devenues, au cours de ces dernières décennies et au fil des dénominations remaniées (FANCI, FDS-CI, FRCI et FACI, voir rapport ci-dessous), le produit recomposé de couches successives de soldats recrutés sans cohérence, et ce en l’absence de règles pour institutionnaliser un processus de recrutement efficace afin de bâtir une véritable armée de métier.

Cette étude décrit et analyse les logiques informelles d’intégration et de maintien de ces groupes de soldats et montre comment l’armée est progressivement devenue un élément majeur du processus de fragilisation de l’État. D’une part, l’armée ivoirienne actuelle relève de la construction informelle car sous l’influence des conjonctures de la lutte politique, instrumentalisée dans les stratégies de conquête et de conservation du pouvoir, elle a laissé prospérer les pratiques de recrutement à la marge des règles. D’autre part, son hybridité est révélée par l’apparition en son sein de factions : l’un des symptômes visibles de son absence de cohésion interne et surtout de segmentation et d’affaiblissement de ses chaînes de commandement officielles. Par ailleurs, l’expérience en cours d’intégration des éléments rebelles dans cette armée -qui elle-même après maintes réformes n’avait auparavant pas pu se transformer en véritable armée de métier- est venue complexifier le défi d’une réforme en profondeur de cette institution.

Au-delà du fait d’apprendre ou réapprendre l’organisation, l’obéissance à la hiérarchie, l’éthique du métier des armes et le respect des droits humains à ces hommes de troupes, le défi se structure principalement autour de la recherche permanente d’une cohabitation apaisée entre des personnels qui se perçoivent et vivent différemment leur enrôlement sous le drapeau.

Veuillez cliquer ici pour accéder à l’article

https://dandurand.uqam.ca/publication/informalite-et-hybridite-au-sein-des-forces-de-defense-de-cote-divoire/

“La confrérie des chasseurs traditionnels dozos en Côte d’Ivoire: enjeux socio-culturels et dynamiques sécuritaires”, par Fahiraman Rodrigue Koné

L’arrivée des Dozos sur la scène publique en Côte d’Ivoire est historiquement située et s’est construite autour de l’affaiblissement de l’appareil sécuritaire de l’État au tournant des années 90 et des crises politico-militaires à répétition dans le pays à partir de 2000. S’adossant au cadre traditionnel qui leur reconnaissait la fonction et la mission de protection des populations dans les communautés mandingues, ils ont habilement manipulé la symbolique ancestrale, les croyances populaires à leurs supposés pouvoirs mystiques et le capital vertu dont ils sont affublés, pour saisir les opportunités d’un marché sécuritaire en croissance.

Cette intervention dans le champ sécuritaire et politique n’est pas sans conséquences. Si les Dozos se sont bâtis une réputation positive reconnue de tous dans la lutte contre l’insécurité dans les années 90, leur engagement politico-militaire a fortement dégradé le capital « confiance » dont ils jouissaient. Du fait de cet engagement, la question dozo est devenue l’un des vecteurs de la polarisation ethno-politique de la société ivoirienne.

L’influence de la confrérie dans le système sécuritaire est bien réelle. Elle est perceptible à travers une culture dozo présente au sein des forces de sécurité, notamment dans les imaginaires et les pratiques associés à la « mystique » dozo. Enfin, les associations continuent de collaborer avec les autorités sécuritaires même si officiellement cette relation ne repose sur aucune base légale. Cette relation informelle, salutaire dans certains cas où les forces officielles sont insuffisantes, soulève toutefois des préoccupations dans la mesure où elle se déroule en dehors d’un cadre juridique, avec le risque d’abus

Veuillez cliquer ici pour accéder à l’article.

https://dandurand.uqam.ca/publication/la-confrerie-des-chasseurs-traditionnels-dozos-en-cote-divoire-enjeux-socio-culturels-et-dynamiques-securitaires/